The subject of the dissertation thesis is the regeneration of the coastal, urban region of Kryoneri in Zakynthos, with the application of smart technologies.
The area of Kryoneri, specifically, is a coastal zone in the centre of Zakynthos town, especially popular among citizens and visitors.
Proceeding to the further analysis of the region, we understand the different qualities of the surfaces, with emphasis on the few green areas and the large quantity of rocks.
The circulation is structured by the horizontal, dual direction coastline boulevard that leads from the one side to the town centre and from the other to the suburb Akrotiri, as well as by smaller vertical routes that connect the area with different points of Zakynthos.
It is basically a residential area, which includes also both urban and tourist uses.
Αt this point, we see the existing coastline.
The redesign of Kryoneri, is based on a layering strategy. According to this, the issues and the needs of the area, are encountered by its configuration to different layers, which concern the movement, the surface and its buildings.Thus, the elements of layering are configurated: movements, surfaces, points and large objects which are analyzed below.
The movements, particularly, are divided to functional, connections and walks. The functional routes concern straight lines necessary for the function of some points. The connections are normal curves that connect respectively some points with a common route. The walks are more irregular curves, for touring to some surfaces and points.
Some of the surfaces have a specific use, as we see the parking lot or the playground, that they do not subject to some other layer. The surfaces also divided to hardscape and softscape, that is to say to hard and soft ground, depending on the use. And finally, the specific materals are: more sand for the configuration of the beach, soil for more green points, asphalt on the parking zones, wood for platforms, foam material for the playground, concrete and paving for the rest of surfaces, according to the current use.
The points are divided firstly to the existing, that they are functional and as a goal we set only their enhancement. Secondly, the existing which are abandoned and we reuse, these are: the G.N.T.O. facilities, the harbour facilities and the old oil factory. The points that we anew create. And lastly the smart points, smaller constructions that diffuse, function and affect the whole area.
Lastly, the large objects are characterised by a special morphology and each of them has a different use: market, a gate that allows the view of the sea and theatre- cinema.
The new coastline, on which some platforms are added, for an extension of the area as well as for the “normalization” of the outline, for an easier access to the sea.
The plantation, can be characterised as an additional layer, and that is to say the green points thoughout the area. The different kinds of trees, shape different densities in hand with the current surface and serve a greener and sustainable character of the intervention. At the same time, they isolate some regions, for more shading and less noise and traffic than the others.
The layers on the masterplan.
Second step for the urban regeneration of Kryoneri, is its smart upgrade. In other words, we aim though some technology applications, to the better connectivity of the area to a broader network, its general modernisation and its adaptation to the new demands and also to its energy autonomy. This is achieved by placing some “smart” devices, which are the smart points, that affect the overall operation of the area.
The smart rain collector, as its name describes, collects the rainwater, it processes it, controls its quality and quantity by sending data to a central data basis and it distributes it to the buildings according to their water needs.
The smart solar tree, consists of a solar panel, smart control sensors and distribution cables. It works with the solar energy and by converting it to electric current, collects data from the environment and distributes it according to the needs of the buildings.
The smart bench, also functioning by solar energy and it is a charging station and Wi-Fi point. It cooperates also with the smart data center, a center brain of the area actually, responsible of the collection and prossecing of all the information from the smart points, because it includes the data basis- servers.
The goal of this regeneration, besides the urban redesign and the practical “smart” upgrade, is the creation of an area, which now modernised, does not adheres to the technology, but on the contrary, is actually “smart”, by responding to the people needs and by providing interesting and useful programs. In relation to the Research thesis, a critical evaluation of smart cities, we raise the question of what is this, that makes a city or a neighbourhood really intelligent. According to this, for our region, we sum up to the following axes, on the basis of which, the area can be regenerated in a smart way: mobility, people, environment, technology and economy.
According to these axes in combination with the essential needs of the area, the program of the intervention is defined.
The final masterplan.
By reviving a coastal zone, as we have mentioned, emphasis should be placed on the different kinds of beaches which are now created. Firstly, on the urban beach with the re-use of the G.N.T.O. facilities, which now function as thalassotherapy center with: fitness suites, W.C. and chainging rooms, pools and hydromassage.
Also, on the connection of the tourist beach with the commercial zone, with the corresponding access roads and connection routes for a larger expansion of visitors, the restaurants- bars which work on the tourist beach, the semiopen market that also functions with a green, sustainable manner, by having as a base an organic garden that supplies both market and restaurant. Furthermore, similtaneously, more shops with local products are working with a view to the harbour.
Lastly, the cultural beach and zone, creating interesting, contiguous routes of connection.